It started with the emergence of a disease outbreak by the coronavirus. Almost all aspects of life undergo changes that are increasingly worrying, shocking the whole world. The affected country is the city of Wuhan, precisely in China. This new type of virus has spread to various parts of the world, causing the emergence of the 2019 coronavirus disease or also known as COVID-19.
A pandemic is an epidemic that has spread to various continents and countries, generally affecting many people. The epidemic is a term to determine the increase in the number of cases suddenly in a population in a specific area. This pandemic has had many negative impacts on several aspects around the world.
The most visible and felt impact is the economic impact. According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), they expect global trade to fall by more than 15 percent in the first half of 2020. And the labor market ravaged by the coronavirus pandemic is forcing businesses around the world to close their doors, shut down production lines, and cut production costs working hours.
Many companies also lay off their employees. One of the reasons is the declining public consumption power. Regulations that require companies or factories for no more than 50% of employees to enter. It causes the company’s productivity and income to decrease. It causes the unemployment rate in a country to increase. And the rate of employee recruitment is decreasing.
Regulations that oblige everyone to keep their distance caused a decrease in the level of human consumption. From shopping centers, supermarkets, restaurants, grocery, to markets, turnover has decreased. They cut the number of existing customers to comply with health protocols. It also has a major impact on the education sector. The government requires schools to conduct online teaching and learning activities. Several countries that have implemented this online system are Indonesia, China, and Korea. It causes students to have less experience in socializing with their friends and teachers. The limited interaction between students and teachers towards lessons is also an obstacle for students.
The government has taken various measures to reduce the impact of this pandemic. One way that can overcome this COVID-19 is vaccination. Vaccination is the administration of vaccines (antigens) that can stimulate the formation of immunity (antibodies) of the immune system in the body. Vaccination is a primary prevention effort to prevent disease. The human body has an immune system that functions to protect the body from attacks by foreign organisms such as viruses or bacteria. The way it works is by sending certain cells to fight off disease-causing germs. However, the immune system can weaken at times, so it is not strong enough to fight disease. That’s why covid vaccines or immunizations are made.
Quoted from the World Health Organization page, there are several variants of the vaccine that scientists around the world have successfully developed. They all have a role to play in teaching the immune system to recognize and block the virus that causes COVID-19. There are several types of potential vaccines for COVID-19 under development:
- Vaccines from inactivated viruses.
Scientists weaken the virus to serve as a covid vaccine that does not cause disease but produces an immune response. One type made from an inactivated virus is Sinovac. China was the first to discover this type. Each person received two doses of the COVID vaccine, 0.5 ml each. And each dose was given at 28-day intervals. They are safe for children, especially children aged 12 to 18 years and pregnant women because of their relatively mild side effects. Side effects include pain and soreness at the injection site, fever, or fatigue.
They used harmless protein fragments or protein shells to mimic the COVID-19 virus. This imitation is to produce an immune response safely. One of these types is Novavax. It is a protein-based sub-unit made by a health company in the US. This Novavax vaccine contains purified protein antigens that cannot replicate and cannot cause infection. Requires two doses to get a good defense.
- Virus vector vaccine
They use safe viruses that cannot cause disease. However, this virus serves as a platform for producing coronavirus proteins that will generate an immune response. AstraZeneca is one of these types. It has a viral vector (non replicating) platform and is given in two doses. It is given in the furthest intervals compared to any other vaccine, up to 12 weeks. In fact, they have fairly high effectiveness against the Delta and Kappa variants of the Coronavirus. The side effects are in the mild-moderate category. The most commonly reported occurrences are pain or itching at the injection site, fever, chills, headache, nausea, and muscle or joint pain.
- RNA and DNA
They use a cutting-edge approach that uses either RNA or DNA. They are genetically engineered to produce a protein that itself triggers an immune response. One of these types is Pfizer and Moderna. Pfizer is made of RNA and is used in the US and Europe. Pfizer has such a high effectiveness value that it is in great demand by many countries around the world. It is given in smaller doses, only 0.3 ml in one vaccination. But it takes two stages of the covid vaccine to get protection from the vaccine, which is effective against this Delta variant.
Meanwhile, Moderna is based on messenger RNA, which does not use an attenuated virus, but utilizes components of engineered genetic material. US Moderna Incorporated manufactures and claims that it has effectiveness against the Delta, Kappa, and Gamma variants. In addition, the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine is considered safe for people with comorbidities. Vaccination aims to reduce morbidity and mortality due to this virus. Although not 100% able to protect a person from Coronavirus infection, this can reduce the possibility of severe symptoms and complications.